Background. Mass vaccination campaigns of the population aged 1-29 years with 1 dose of group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) in African meningitis belt countries has resulted in the near-disappearance of MenA. The vaccine was tested in clinical trials in Africa and in India and found to be safe and highly immunogenic compared with the group A component of the licensed quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY). Antibody persistence in Africa and in India was investigated. Methods. A total of 900 subjects aged 2-29 years were followed up for 4 years in Senegal, Mali, and The Gambia (study A). A total of 340 subjects aged 2-10 years were followed up for 1 year in India (study B). In study A, subjects were randomized in a 2:1 ratio, and in study B a 1:1 ratio to receive either PsA-TT or PsACWY. Immunogenicity was evaluated by measuring MenA serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) with rabbit complement and by a group A-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. In both studies, substantial SBA decay was observed at 6 months postvaccination in both vaccine groups, although more marked in the PsACWY group. At 1 year and 4 years (only for study A) postvaccination, SBA titers were relatively sustained in the PsA-TT group, whereas a slight increasing trend, more pronounced among the youngest, was observed in the participants aged <18 years in the PsACWY groups. The SBA titers were significantly higher in the PsA-TT group than in the PsACWY group at any time point, and the majority of subjects in the PsA-TT group had SBA titers ≥128 and group A-specific IgG concentrations ≥2 μg/mL at any point in time in both the African and Indian study populations. Conclusions. Four years after vaccination with a single dose of PsA-TT vaccine in Africa, most subjects are considered protected from MenA disease.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2015 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
- African meningitis belt
- MenA conjugate vaccine
- antibody persistence