A 5-year survey, from 2000 to 2004, of results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 11 antimicrobials for 134,310 isolates of nontyphoidal salmonellas from cases of human infection in 10 European countries has demonstrated an overall increase in the occurrence of resistance, from 57% to 66% over the period of study. In contrast, multiple resistance (to four or more antimicrobial drugs) has declined from 18% to 15%. The most significant increase in resistance has been to nalidixic acid (14% to 20%), particularly in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (10% to 26%), the most common serovar. For England and Wales this increase has for the most part been attributed to infections linked to contaminated eggs originating outside the United Kingdom. For Salmonella Typhimurium, the second most prevalent serovar, there has been an overall decline in the occurrence of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracyclines, attributed to a decline in the occurrence of multiresistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104. For Salmonella Virchow, a serotype with a predilection for invasive disease, there has been a substantive increase in resistance to most antimicrobials, attributed to the spread of drug-resistant strains associated with poultry. Because of the widespread importation of foods, it is important that controls to reduce the emergence and spread of drug-resistant strains of Salmonella are internationally implemented.