Purpose: Obesity has been associated with an increased risk of advanced and fatal prostate cancer; adipokines may mediate this association. We examined associations of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin with the stage and grade of PSA-detected prostate cancer. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study comparing 311 men with mainly locally advanced (≥T3, N1, or M1 cases) vs. 413 men with localized (T ≤2 & NX-0 & M0 controls) PSA-detected prostate cancer, recruited 2001-2009 from 9 UK regions to the ProtecT study. Associations of body mass index and adipokine levels with prostate cancer stage were determined by conditional logistic regression and with grade (Gleason score ≥7 vs. ≤6) by unconditional logistic regression. Results: Adiponectin was inversely associated with prostate cancer stage in overweight and obese men (OR 0.62; 95 % CI 0.42-0.90; p = 0.01), but not in normal weight men (OR 1.48; 0.77-2.82; p = 0.24) (p for interaction 0.007), or all men (OR 0.86; 0.66-1.11; p = 0.24). There was no compelling evidence of associations between leptin or leptin to adiponectin ratio and prostate cancer stage. No strong associations of adiponectin, leptin, or leptin:adiponectin ratio with grade were seen. Conclusions: This study provides some evidence that adiponectin levels may be associated with prostate cancer stage, dependent on the degree of adiposity of the man. Our results are consistent with adiponectin countering the adverse effects of obesity on prostate cancer progression.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Brown, Simon Collin, Michael Davis, Dan Dedman, Elizabeth Down, Ewa Dudziec, Luke Ferguson, Anne George, Vriti Hansraj, Dawn Jordan, Selena Josephs, Rajeev Kumar, Adam Lambert, Athene Lane, Thomas Ludlam, Gemma Marsden, Luke Marsden, Steven Oliver, Josh Phillips, Jane Pritchard, Laura Proctor, Peter Shiarly, Martin Taylor, Emma Turner, Eleanor Walsh, Oliver Wilkinson, Valentina Wright. Administrative support: Susan Baker, Elizabeth Bellis-Shel- don, Chantal Bougard, Joanne Bowtell, Catherine Brewer, Nicholas Christoforou, Rebecca Clark, Susan Coull, Christine Croker, Rosemary Currer, Claire Daisey, Gill Delaney, Rose Donohue, Susan Fry, Jean Haddow, Susan Halpin, Belle Harris, Barbara Hattrick, Sharon Holmes, Helen Hunt, Vicky Jackson, Mandy Le Butt, Jo Leworthy, Tanya Liddiatt, Alex Martin, Jainee Mauree, Susan Moore, Gill Moulam, Jackie Mutch, Kathleen Parker, Christopher Pawsey, Michelle Purdie, Teresa Robson, Lynne Smith, Carole Stenton, Tom (Prasad Bollina, Sue Bonnington, Debbie Cooper, Andrew Doble, Alan Doherty, Emma Elliott, David Gillatt, Pippa Herbert, Peter Holding, Joanne Howson, Mandy Jones, Roger Kockelbergh, Howard Kynaston, Teresa Lennon, Norma Lyons, Hilary Moody, Philip Powell, Stephen Prescott, Liz Salter, Pauline Thompson). Department of Health disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed therein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of Health. Grant support: AB is recipient of an MRC 4-year PhD studentship at the MRC Centre for Causal Analysis in Translational Epidemiology. The ProtecT study was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment (NIHR HTA) program (HTA 96/20/99, ISRCTN20141297) and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment. Additional funding for this study was provided by the University of Bristol Cancer Research Fund.
- Body mass index
- Prostate cancer