Associations with intraocular pressure in a large cohort: Results from the UK Biobank

Michelle P.Y. Chan, Carlota M. Grossi, Anthony P. Khawaja, Jennifer L.Y. Yip, Kay Tee Khaw, Praveen J. Patel, Peng T. Khaw, James E. Morgan, Stephen A. Vernon, Paul J. Foster*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose To describe the associations of physical and demographic factors with Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) and corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) in a British cohort. Design Cross-sectional study within the UK Biobank, a large-scale multisite cohort study in the United Kingdom. Participants We included 110 573 participants from the UK Biobank with intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements available. Their mean age was 57 years (range, 40-69 years); 54% were women, and 90% were white. Methods Participants had 1 IOP measurement made on each eye using the Ocular Response Analyzer noncontact tonometer. Linear regression models were used to assess the associations of IOP with physical and demographic factors. Main Outcome Measures The IOPg and IOPcc. Results The mean IOPg was 15.72 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.70-15.74 mmHg), and the mean IOPcc was 15.95 mmHg (15.92-15.97 mmHg). After adjusting for covariates, IOPg and IOPcc were both significantly associated with older age, male sex, higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), faster heart rate, greater myopia, self-reported glaucoma, and colder season (all P < 0.001). The strongest determinants of both IOPg and IOPcc were SBP (partial R2: IOPg 2.30%, IOPcc 2.26%), followed by refractive error (IOPg 0.60%, IOPcc 1.04%). The following variables had different directions of association with IOPg and IOPcc: height (-0.77 mmHg/m IOPg; 1.03 mmHg/m IOPcc), smoking (0.19 mmHg IOPg, -0.35 mmHg IOPcc), self-reported diabetes (0.41 mmHg IOPg, -0.05 mmHg IOPcc), and black ethnicity (-0.80 mmHg IOPg, 0.77 mmHg IOPcc). This suggests that height, smoking, diabetes, and ethnicity are related to corneal biomechanical properties. The increase in both IOPg and IOPcc with age was greatest among those of mixed ethnicities, followed by blacks and whites. The same set of covariates explained 7.4% of the variability of IOPcc but only 5.3% of the variability of IOPg. Conclusions This analysis of associations with IOP in a large cohort demonstrated that some variables clearly have different associations with IOPg and IOPcc, and that these 2 measurements may reflect different biological characteristics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)771-782
Number of pages12
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
P.J.F.: Grant - Alcon; Personal fees-Allergan and Zeiss; Nonfinancial support - Heidelberg during the conduct of the study. UK Biobank was established by the Wellcome Trust medical charity, Medical Research Council, Department of Health, Scottish Government, and Northwest Regional Development Agency. It also had funding from the Welsh Assembly Government, British Heart Foundation, and Diabetes UK. M.P.Y.C.: Funded by an MRC/RCOphth Clinical Training Fellowship (G1001939/1) and the International Glaucoma Association. A.P.K.: Wellcome Trustefunded Clinical Research Fellow (094791/Z/10/Z). P.J.F.: Supported by the Richard Desmond Charitable Trust via Fight for Sight (1956), the Special Trustees of Moorfields Eye Hospital (ST 12 09), and the Department for Health through an award made by the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (BRC2_009). The funding organizations had no role in the design or conduct of this research.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology Published by Elsevier Inc.


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