Changes in HIV prevalence and risk among new injecting drug users in a Russian City of high HIV prevalence

Lucy Platt*, Tim Rhodes, Matthew Hickman, Larissa Mikhailova, Konstantin Lisetsky, Anya Sarang, Kim Lewis, John Parry

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To measure HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among recent initiates into drug injecting in 2001 and 2004 in Togliatti City, Russian Federation. DESIGN: Two unlinked, anonymous, cross-sectional, community-recruited surveys of injecting drug users (IDUs) with oral fluid samples for anti-HIV testing. METHODS: IDUs completed an interviewer- administered questionnaire, and oral fluid samples were tested for antibodies to HIV. Demographic characteristics and injecting risk behaviors were compared between subsamples of IDUs who reported injecting for 3 years or less in each of the survey years, 2001 (n = 138) and 2004 (n = 96). Univariable and multivariable analyses explored risk factors with anti-HIV among these new injectors. RESULTS: Among IDUs overall, although HIV prevalence was high, a lower prevalence was found in 2004 (38.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.1 to 42.9) than in 2001 (56%, 95% CI: 51.2 to 60.8). A significantly lower prevalence of HIV was found among new injectors in 2004 (11.5%, 95% CI: 5.0 to 17.9) than in 2001 (55.2%, 95% CI: 46.7 to 63.8). Proportionally, fewer new injectors reported injecting daily, injecting with used needles/syringes, and frontloading in 2004 compared with 2001. Decreased odds of anti-HIV were associated with being recruited in 2004 and with a history of drug treatment. Increased odds of HIV were associated with exchanging sex, duration of injection, and frontloading. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate a decrease in HIV prevalence among new injectors between 2001 and 2004 and emphasize the role of provision of needle/syringes through pharmacies and providing access to voluntary HIV testing. These findings have implications for other cities in which explosive HIV outbreaks have occurred.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)623-631
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Volume47
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2008

Keywords

  • HIV prevention
  • Injecting drug use
  • New injectors
  • Russia
  • Sexual risk behavior

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