Characteristics of neighbourhoods with high incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and low bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates in England

Terry P. Brown*, Scott Booth, Claire A. Hawkes, Jasmeet Soar, Julian Mark, James Mapstone, Rachael T. Fothergill, Sarah Black, Helen Pocock, Anna Bichmann, Imogen Gunson, Gavin D. Perkins

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    10 Citations (Scopus)


    Aims The aim of the project was to identify the neighbourhood characteristics of areas in England where out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) incidence was high and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) was low using registry data. Methods and results Analysis was based on 67 219 cardiac arrest events between 1 April 2013 and 31 December 2015. Arrest locations were geocoded to give latitude/longitude. Postcode district was chosen as the proxy for neighbourhood. High-risk neighbourhoods, where OHCA incidence based on residential population was >127.6/100 000, or based on workday population was >130/100 000, and BCPR in bystander witnessed arrest was <60% were observed to have: a greater mean residential population density, a lower workday population density, a lower rural-urban index, a higher proportion of people in routine occupations and lower proportion in managerial occupations, a greater proportion of population from ethnic minorities, a greater proportion of people not born in UK, and greater level of deprivation. High-risk areas were observed in the North-East, Yorkshire, South-East, and Birmingham. Conclusion The study identified neighbourhood characteristics of high-risk areas that experience a high incidence of OHCA and low bystander resuscitation rate that could be targeted for programmes of training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator use.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)51-62
    Number of pages12
    JournalEuropean Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    British Heart Foundation and Resuscitation Council (UK); G.D.P. is supported as NIHR Senior Investigator and Director of Research for the Intensive Care Foundation.

    Funding Information:
    Conflict of interest: T.B., S.B., C.J., C.H., and G.D.P. are employed by the University of Warwick, which receives grants from the British Heart Foundation and the Resuscitation Council (UK) for the conduct of the OHCAO project. J.S. is editor of Resuscitation journal for which he receives payment from publisher Elsevier.

    Publisher Copyright:
    © Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved.


    • Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    • Neighbourhood characteristics
    • Pre-hospital cardiac arrest


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