BACKGROUND: Chemokines play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of leukocyte traffic during bacterial infection. The aims of this study were to investigate the chemokine response to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and to examine the influence of HIV infection on the chemokine response, pneumococcal bacterial loads, and outcome. METHODS: We prospectively studied 95 children with IPD, and blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were taken at admission for the determination of chemokines, interferon-γ (IFNγ), and pneumococcal bacterial loads. RESULTS: Plasma CXCL8 and CCL2, CSF CXCL8 and CCL4, and IFNγ were significantly higher in HIV-infected children than in HIV-uninfected children. Blood and CSF pneumococcal bacterial loads correlated with plasma and CSF chemokines, respectively, and were higher in HIV-infected children compared with HIV-uninfected children. Among HIV-infected children, plasma concentrations of CXCL8 and CCL2 were significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors, but CCL5 was significantly lower. HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children with IPD had higher concentrations of chemokines (except CCL5) than acutely ill HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children with no detectable bacterial infection. Male gender and low plasma CCL2 concentrations were shown to be independently associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS: Chemokines, in particular CCL2, are associated with survival in IPD and correlate with pneumococcal bacterial loads, disease presentation, and outcome.
- Bacterial loads
- Invasive pneumococcal disease