The technique of measuring the frequency of dicentric chromosomal aberrations in blood lymphocytes was used to estimate doses in a simulated criticality accident. The simulation consisted of three exposures; ∼5 Gy with a bare source and 1 and 2 Gy with a lead-shielded source. Three laboratories made separate estimates of the doses. These were made by the iterative method of apportioning the observed dicentric frequencies between the gamma and neutron components, taking account of a given gamma/neutron dose ratio, and referring the separated dicentric frequencies to dose-response calibration curves. An alternative method, based on Bayesian ideas, was employed. This was developed for interpreting dicentric frequencies in situations where the gamma/neutron ratio is uncertain. Both methods gave very similar results. One laboratory produced dose estimates close to the eventual exercise reference doses and the other laboratories estimated slightly higher values. The main reason for the higher values was the calibration relationships for fission neutrons.