Decreasing case fatality rate following invasive pneumococcal disease, North East England, 2006–2016

C. Houseman, K. E. Chapman, P. Manley, Russell Gorton, D. Wilson, G. J. Hughes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Declining mortality following invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has been observed concurrent with a reduced incidence due to effective pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, with IPD now increasing due to serotype replacement, we undertook a statistical analysis to estimate the trend in all-cause 30-day case fatality rate (CFR) in the North East of England (NEE) following IPD. Clinical, microbiological and demographic data were obtained for all laboratory-confirmed IPD cases (April 2006–March 2016) and the adjusted association between CFR and epidemiological year estimated using logistic regression. Of the 2510 episodes of IPD included in the analysis, 486 died within 30 days of IPD (CFR 19%). Increasing age, male sex, a diagnosis of septicaemia, being in ≥1 clinical risk groups, alcohol abuse and individual serotypes were independently associated with increased CFR. A significant decline in CFR over time was observed following adjustment for these significant predictors (adjusted odds ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.89–0.98; P = 0.003). A small but significant decline in 30-day all-cause CFR following IPD has been observed in the NEE. Nonetheless, certain population groups remain at increased risk of dying following IPD. Despite the introduction of effective vaccines, further strategies to reduce the ongoing burden of mortality from IPD are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere175
JournalEpidemiology and Infection
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Case fatality rate
  • Invasive pneumococcal disease
  • Mortality
  • Pneumococcal infection
  • Pneumococcal vaccine
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae


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