Depression among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Punjab, Pakistan: A large cross-sectional study

I. F. Walker*, Ahmar M. Khan, Amir M. Khan, N. M. Khan, R. M. Ayub, K. N. Ghias, J. D. Walley

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depression is likely to be a factor in the lowglobal rates of successful treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) due to poor adherence to treatment. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of depression among patients being treated for MDR-TB in Pakistan, explore rates of depression over the course of treatment and identify risk factors for depression. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study analysed health care service data from 12 treatment sites following a single screening event using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). Logistic regression models were used to identify associations. RESULT S : Data were collected from 1279 patients with MDR-TB. The proportion of MDR-TB patients with depression was 42.8% (95%CI 40.1-45.5). Rates of depression varied according to duration of treatment, with the highest proportion (53.2%) found in those who were in months 10-12 of treatment. The odds of depression in women were higher than for men (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.84, 95%CI 1.46-2.33). The odds of depression were higher in patients living in concretebuilt houses than in those living in mud-built houses (aOR 1.37, 95%CI 1.03-1.82). CONCLUS ION: Depression is common in MDR-TB patients, and should be screened for and treated within MDR-TB treatment programmes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)773-778
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2018
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Union.


  • Depression
  • Drug resistance
  • Epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis


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