Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the relative time-dependent disruption and bactericidal effects of detergent-type surfactants on single- or dual-species biofilms of root canal isolates and (2) to examine the utility of polygonal graphs for depiction of biofilm disruption and cell killing. Materials and methods: Single-species biofilms of Streptococcus sanguinis, Enterococcus faecalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis were grown on nitro-cellulose membranes for 72 h and immersed in Tween®80, cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB), and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) for 1-, 5- or 10-min (n = 3 per test). The number of viable and non-viable bacteria “disrupted” from the biofilm and those “remaining-attached” was determined using a viability stain in conjunction with fluorescence microscopy. The data were analysed using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test with 5% significance level. Results: Gram-negative obligate anaerobes were more susceptible to cell removal than gram-positive facultative anaerobes. The majority of cells were disrupted after 1-min of exposure; however, the extent varied according to the agent and species. CTAB and SDS were more effective than Tween 80™ at disrupting biofilms and killing cells but all agents failed to achieve 100% disruption/kill. Conclusions: Biofilm disruption and cell viability were influenced by the species, the test agent and the duration of exposure. CTAB and SDS were more effective in biofilm disruption than Tween 80™. Graphical depiction of biofilm disruption- and viability-outcomes provides an alternative means of simultaneously visualising and analysing relative efficacy in different domains. Clinical relevance: Surfactants were not as effective at biofilm disruption as NaOCl but may be added to other non-disruptive antibacterial agents to enhance this property.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2020, The Author(s).
- Bacterial killing
- Depiction of outcome measures
- Root canal