Enhanced West Nile virus surveillance in the North Kent marshes, UK

Alexander G.C. Vaux*, Gabriella Gibson, Luis M. Hernandez-Triana, Robert A. Cheke, Fiona McCracken, Claire L. Jeffries, Daniel L. Horton, Simon Springate, Nicholas Johnson, Anthony R. Fooks, Steve Leach, Jolyon M. Medlock

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Background: As part of efforts to more fully understand the potential risks posed by West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) in the UK, and following on from previous reports of a potential bridge vector Culex modestus for these viruses, at wetland sites in North Kent, mosquito surveillance was undertaken more widely across the Isle of Sheppey, the Hoo Peninsula and the Kent mainland. Methods: Larval surveys were conducted and Mosquito Magnet® adult traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes. Pools of female mosquitoes were tested for the presence of WNV using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A subset of samples was tested for USUV. Results: Culex modestus was found in both the pre-imaginal and imago stage at all five locations surveyed, accounting for 90% of adult mosquitoes collected. WNV or USUV were not detected in any sample. Conclusions: Although no mosquitoes have been shown to be virus positive, the field survey data from this study demonstrated the dominance of an important bridge vector species for WNV in this region. Its wide geographical distribution highlights the need to update risk assessments on WNV introduction, and to maintain vigilance for WNV in the South East of England.

Original languageEnglish
Article number91
JournalParasites and Vectors
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the landowners and reserve managers for their permission to access and collect mosquitoes. We are grateful to Maximilian J. Colvin and Samuel J.M. Colvin for assisting in the field. Funding was provided by Defra grants SV3040, SE4215 and SE4112. JM’s time was part-funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections at the University of Liverpool in partnership with Public Health England (PHE) and the Liverpool School of Tropical medicine. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR, the Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs, Animal and Plant Health Agency, the Department of Health or Public Health England.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Vaux et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


  • Culex modestus
  • Culicidae
  • Mosquito
  • Surveillance
  • United Kingdom
  • Usutu virus
  • West Nile virus


Dive into the research topics of 'Enhanced West Nile virus surveillance in the North Kent marshes, UK'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this