Systematic analysis of 17 baboons helped us to identify limitations and to improve our methodology. Analysis using a two-step study design proved to be very powerful and can be recommended for future studies, with some cautions about multiple comparisons. The final design of our diagnostic tool proposed for H-ARS prediction exemplified the need to combine in vivo with in vitro studies and to bridge the inter-species gap by assessing several species and to compare that with findings in irradiated patient populations and healthy humans. In particular, our baboon research related to topics of radiosensitivity, whole-or partial-body exposure and persistent gene expression changes observed months after irradiation appears promising, but preliminary and further validation, as always, is crucial. The maturation grade of these topics cannot be compared with the main focus of our research on H-ARS prediction as our measure for preparedness for a radiological or nuclear event.