Genotoxic effects of high dose rate X-ray and low dose rate gamma radiation in ApcMin/+ mice

Anne Graupner*, Dag M. Eide, Dag A. Brede, Michele Ellender, Elisabeth Lindbo Hansen, Deborah H. Oughton, Simon D. Bouffler, Gunnar Brunborg, Ann Karin Olsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer in humans are based on epidemiological data largely drawn from the Japanese atomic bomb survivor studies, which received an acute high dose rate (HDR) ionising radiation. Limited knowledge exists about the effects of chronic low dose rate (LDR) exposure, particularly with respect to the application of the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor. As part of a study to investigate the development of colon cancer following chronic LDR vs. acute HDR radiation, this study presents the results of genotoxic effects in blood of exposed mice. CBAB6 F1 Apc+/+ (wild type) and ApcMin/+ mice were chronically exposed to estimated whole body absorbed doses of 1.7 or 3.2 Gy 60Co-γ-rays at a LDR (2.2 mGy h−1) or acutely exposed to 2.6 Gy HDR X-rays (1.3 Gy min−1). Genotoxic endpoints assessed in blood included chromosomal damage (flow cytometry based micronuclei (MN) assay), mutation analyses (Pig-a gene mutation assay), and levels of DNA lesions (Comet assay, single-strand breaks (ssb), alkali labile sites (als), oxidized DNA bases). Ionising radiation (ca. 3 Gy) induced genotoxic effects dependent on the dose rate. Chromosomal aberrations (MN assay) increased 3- and 10-fold after chronic LDR and acute HDR, respectively. Phenotypic mutation frequencies as well as DNA lesions (ssb/als) were modulated after acute HDR but not after chronic LDR. The ApcMin/+ genotype did not influence the outcome in any of the investigated endpoints. The results herein will add to the scant data available on genotoxic effects following chronic LDR of ionising radiation. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:560–569, 2017.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)560-569
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. Grant sponsor: European Atomic Energy Community Seventh Framework Programme; Grant number: FP7/2007-2011. Grant sponsor: Research Council of Norway through its Centres of Excellence Funding Scheme; Grant numbers: 223268/F50 CERAD, 244053 (CloGiGat).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Authors Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Environmental Mutagen Society


  • DNA lesions
  • blood cells
  • chronic and acute irradiation
  • micronuclei
  • mutation


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