Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

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Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2136 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. Methods We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and trends in exposure by age group, sex, year, and geography for 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2015. This study included 388 risk-outcome pairs that met World Cancer Research Fund-defined criteria for convincing or probable evidence. We extracted relative risk and exposure estimates from randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources. We used statistical models to pool data, adjust for bias, and incorporate covariates. We developed a metric that allows comparisons of exposure across risk factors—the summary exposure value. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk level, we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. We decomposed trends in attributable burden into contributions from population growth, population age structure, risk exposure, and risk-deleted cause-specific DALY rates. We characterised risk exposure in relation to a Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Findings Between 1990 and 2015, global exposure to unsafe sanitation, household air pollution, childhood underweight, childhood stunting, and smoking each decreased by more than 25%. Global exposure for several occupational risks, high body-mass index (BMI), and drug use increased by more than 25% over the same period. All risks jointly evaluated in 2015 accounted for 57·8% (95% CI 56·6–58·8) of global deaths and 41·2% (39·8–42·8) of DALYs. In 2015, the ten largest contributors to global DALYs among Level 3 risks were high systolic blood pressure (211·8 million [192·7 million to 231·1 million] global DALYs), smoking (148·6 million [134·2 million to 163·1 million]), high fasting plasma glucose (143·1 million [125·1 million to 163·5 million]), high BMI (120·1 million [83·8 million to 158·4 million]), childhood undernutrition (113·3 million [103·9 million to 123·4 million]), ambient particulate matter (103·1 million [90·8 million to 115·1 million]), high total cholesterol (88·7 million [74·6 million to 105·7 million]), household air pollution (85·6 million [66·7 million to 106·1 million]), alcohol use (85·0 million [77·2 million to 93·0 million]), and diets high in sodium (83·0 million [49·3 million to 127·5 million]). From 1990 to 2015, attributable DALYs declined for micronutrient deficiencies, childhood undernutrition, unsafe sanitation and water, and household air pollution; reductions in risk-deleted DALY rates rather than reductions in exposure drove these declines. Rising exposure contributed to notable increases in attributable DALYs from high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, occupational carcinogens, and drug use. Environmental risks and childhood undernutrition declined steadily with SDI; low physical activity, high BMI, and high fasting plasma glucose increased with SDI. In 119 countries, metabolic risks, such as high BMI and fasting plasma glucose, contributed the most attributable DALYs in 2015. Regionally, smoking still ranked among the leading five risk factors for attributable DALYs in 109 countries; childhood underweight and unsafe sex remained primary drivers of early death and disability in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Interpretation Declines in some key environmental risks have contributed to declines in critical infectious diseases. Some risks appear to be invariant to SDI. Increasing risks, including high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, drug use, and some occupational exposures, contribute to rising burden from some conditions, but also provide opportunities for intervention. Some highly preventable risks, such as smoking, remain major causes of attributable DALYs, even as exposure is declining. Public policy makers need to pay attention to the risks that are increasingly major contributors to global burden. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1659-1724
Number of pages66
JournalThe Lancet
Volume388
Issue number10053
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Oct 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Bruce Bartholow Duncan and Maria Inês Schmidt have received additional funding from the Brazilian Ministry of Health (Process No 25000192049/2014-14). Benjamin O Anderson is supported by the Susan G Komen Leadership Grant Research Project, award number SAC160001. Itamar S Santos reports grants from FAPESP (Brazilian public agency), outside the submitted work. Carl Abelardo T Antonio reports grants, personal fees and non-financial support from Johnson & Johnson (Philippines), Inc, outside the submitted work. Kunihiro Matsushita reports personal fees from Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, and MSD outside of the submitted work. Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos and Ferrán Catalá-López are supported in part by grant PROMETEOII/2015/021 from Generalitat Valenciana, and Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos is supported by the national grant PI14/00894 from ISCIII-FEDER. Walter Mendoza is currently employed by the Peru Country Office of the United Nations Population Fund, an institution which does not necessarily endorse this study. Bradford D Gessner reports grants from Crucell, GSK, Hilleman Labs, Novartis, Pfizer, Merck, and Sanofi Pasteur, outside the submitted work. Ai Koyanagi's work is supported by the Miguel Servet contract financed by the CP13/00150 and PI15/00862 projects, integrated into the National R + D + I and funded by the ISCIII—General Branch Evaluation and Promotion of Health Research—and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF-FEDER). Aletta E Schutte is funded by the Medical Research Council of South Africa, and the South African Research Chair Initiative by the National Research Foundation. Dariush Mozaffarian reports ad-hoc honoraria or consulting from Boston Heart Diagnostics, Haas Avocado Board, AstraZeneca, GOED, DSM, and Life Sciences Research Organization; and chapter royalties from UpToDate. Amador Goodridge would like to acknowledge funding for me from Sistema Nacional de Investigadores de Panamá-SNI. Donal Bisanzio is supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (#OPP1068048). Jost B Jonas reports personal fees from Consultant for Mundipharma Co (Cambridge, UK); from patent holder with Biocompatibles UK Ltd (Franham, Surrey, UK) (Title: Treatment of eye diseases using encapsulated cells encoding and secreting neuroprotective factor and / or anti-angiogenic factor; patent number: 20120263794), from patent application with University of Heidelberg (Heidelberg, Germany) (Title: Agents for use in the therapeutic or prophylactic treatment of myopia or hyperopia; Europäische Patentanmeldung 15 000 771.4), outside the submitted work. Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suarez receives institutional support from Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales, UDCA, Bogotá Colombia. Juan A Rivera reports personal fees from Tres Montes Lucchetti, outside the submitted work. Stefanos Tyrovolas's work is supported by the Foundation for Education and European Culture (IPEP), the Sara Borrell postdoctoral programme (reference no CD15/00019 from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII - Spain) and the Fondos Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER). Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla would like to acknowledge the institutional support of PRONABEC (National Program of Scholarship and Educational Loan), provided by the Peruvian Government, while studying for her doctoral course at the Judith Lumley Centre of La Trobe University funded by PRONABEC. Manami Inoue is the beneficiary of a financial contribution from the AXA Research fund as chair holder of the AXA Department of Health and Human Security, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo from Nov 1, 2012; the AXA Research Fund has no role in this work. Sarah C Darby would like to acknowledge Cancer Research UK (grant no C8225/A21133). Yogeshwar Kalkonde is a Wellcome Trust/ DBT India Alliance Intermediate Fellow in Public Health. Heidi Stöckl is funded by a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship. Tea Lallukka reports funding from The Academy of Finland, grant #287488. Charles D A Wolfe's research was funded/supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre based at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London. Simon I Hay is funded by a Senior Research Fellowship from the Wellcome Trust (#095066), and grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1119467, OPP1093011, OPP1106023, and OPP1132415).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license

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