Group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. No licensed vaccines are available for either disease, but vaccines for both are under development. Severe respiratory syncytial virus disease can be prevented by passively administered antibody. The presence of maternal IgG antibody specific to respiratory syncytial virus is associated with reduced prevalence and severity of respiratory syncytial virus disease in the first few weeks of life, whereas maternal serotype-specific anticapsular antibody is associated with protection against both early-onset and late-onset group B streptococcus disease. Therefore, vaccination in pregnancy might protect infants against both diseases. This report describes what is known about immune protection against group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus, identifies knowledge gaps regarding the immunobiology of both diseases, and aims to prioritise research directions in maternal immunisation.