High cholera vaccination coverage following emergency campaign in Haiti: Results from a cluster survey in three rural communes in the south department, 2017

Ashley Sharp*, Alexandre Blake, Jérôme Backx, Isabella Panunzi, Robert Barrais, Fabienne Nackers, Francisco Luquero, Yves Gaston Deslouches, Sandra Cohuet

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) has increasingly been used as an outbreak control measure, but vaccine shortages limit its application. A two-dose OCV campaign targeting residents aged over 1 year was launched in three rural Communes of Southern Haiti during an outbreak following Hurricane Matthew in October 2016. Door-to-door and fixed-site strategies were employed and mobile teams delivered vaccines to hard-to-reach communities. This was the first campaign to use the recently pre-qualified OCV, Euvichol. The study objective was to estimate post-campaign vaccination coverage in order to evaluate the campaign and guide future outbreak control strategies. We conducted a cluster survey with sampling based on random GPS points. We identi-fied clusters of five households and included all members eligible for vaccination. Local residents collected data through face-to-face interviews. Coverage was estimated, accounting for the clustered sampling, and 95% confidence intervals calculated. 435 clusters, 2,100 households and 9,086 people were included (99% response rate). Across the three communes respectively, coverage by recall was: 80.7% (95% CI:76.8– 84.1), 82.6% (78.1–86.4), and 82.3% (79.0–85.2) for two doses and 94.2% (90.8–96.4), 91.8% (87–94.9), and 93.8% (90.8–95.9) for at least one dose. Coverage varied by less than 9% across age groups and was similar among males and females. Participants obtained vaccines from door-to-door vaccinators (53%) and fixed sites (47%). Most participants heard about the campaign through community ‘criers’ (58%). Despite hard-to-reach communities, high coverage was achieved in all areas through combining different vaccine delivery strategies and extensive community mobilisation. Emergency OCV campaigns are a viable option for outbreak control and where possible multiple strategies should be used in combination. Euvichol will help alleviate the OCV short-age but effectiveness studies in outbreaks should be done.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0007967
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalPLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.

Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Publisher Copyright: © 2020 Sharp et al.

Citation: Sharp A, Blake A, Backx J, Panunzi I, Barrais R, Nackers F, et al. (2020) High cholera vaccination coverage following emergency campaign in Haiti: Results from a cluster survey in three rural Communes in the South Department, 2017. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(1): e0007967.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007967

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