Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was carried out on 87 isolates of sequence type 111 (ST-111) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected between 2005 and 2014 from 65 patients and 12 environmental isolates from 24 hospital laboratories across the United Kingdom on an Illumina HiSeq instrument. Most isolates (73) carried VIM-2, but others carried IMP-1 or IMP-13 (5) or NDM-1 (1); one isolate had VIM-2 and IMP-18, and 7 carried no metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) gene. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis divided the isolates into distinct clusters; the NDM-1 isolate was an outlier, and the IMP isolates and 6/7 MBL-negative isolates clustered separately from the main set of 73 VIM-2 isolates. Within the VIM-2 set, there were at least 3 distinct clusters, including a tightly clustered set of isolates from 3 hospital laboratories consistent with an outbreak from a single introduction that was quickly brought under control and a much broader set dominated by isolates from a long-running outbreak in a London hospital likely seeded from an environmental source, requiring different control measures; isolates from 7 other hospital laboratories in London and southeast England were also included. Bayesian evolutionary analysis indicated that all the isolates shared a common ancestor dating back ≤50 years (1960s), with the main VIM-2 set separating approximately 20 to 30 years ago. Accessory gene profiling revealed blocks of genes associated with particular clusters, with some having high similarity (>95%) to bacteriophage genes. WGS of widely found international lineages such as ST-111 provides the necessary resolution to inform epidemiological investigations and intervention policies.
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