Internal doses are calculated using biokinetic and dosimetric models. These models describe the behaviour of the radionuclides after ingestion, inhalation, and absorption to the blood, and the absorption of the energy resulting from their nuclear transformations. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) develops such models and applies them to provide dose coefficients and bioassay functions for the calculation of equivalent or effective dose from knowledge of intakes and/or measurements of activity in bioassay samples. Over the past few years, ICRP has devoted a considerable amount of effort to the revision and improvement of models to make them more physiologically realistic representations of uptake and retention in organs and tissues, and of excretion. Provision of new biokinetic models, dose coefficients, monitoring methods, and bioassay data is the responsibility of Committee 2 and its task groups. Three publications in a series of documents replacing the ICRP Publication 30 series and ICRP Publications 54, 68, and 78 have been issued [Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides (OIR) Parts 1–3]. OIR Part 1 describes the assessment of internal occupational exposure to radionuclides, biokinetic and dosimetric models, methods of individual and workplace monitoring, and general aspects of retrospective dose assessment. OIR Parts 2–5 provide data on individual elements and their radioisotopes. Work is also in progress on revision of dose coefficients for radionuclide intakes by members of the public.
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- Dose coefficients
- Internal dosimetry