Lipid formulations containing BCG strains Danish 1331 or Moreau (Rio de Janeiro) were trialled as oral vaccines in rodent models. In mice, oral-delivery of either strain resulted in BCG colonisation of the alimentary tract lymphatics and induction of gamma-interferon responses. In guinea pigs, both strains provided pulmonary protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis aerosol challenge, as shown by significantly reduced bacterial loads and lung:body weight ratios. Lipid-formulated BCG provided superior protection against M. tuberculosis over unformulated orally-delivered BCG (Moreau), and equivalent protection to sub-cutaneous BCG (Danish) immunisation. Oral-delivery of lipid-formulated BCG may offer a practical alternative to parenteral-route BCG vaccination.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The guinea pig study was funded by the Department of Health, UK; the mouse study was funded by ISL, New Zealand. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Health. The staffs in the Biological Investigations Group at HPA Porton Down and Yper Hall, and Yvonne Coughlan (University of Otago), are sincerely thanked for their technical support.
- Lipid formulation
- Oral vaccine