Impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Risk of Pneumococcal Coinfection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Prospective National Cohort Study, England

Zahin Amin-Chowdhury, Felicity Aiano, Anna Mensah, Carmen L. Sheppard, David Litt, Norman Fry, Nicholas Andrews, Mary Ramsay, Shamez Ladhani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection with influenza results in synergistic lethality, but there are limited data on pneumococcal coinfection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods: Public Health England conducts invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in England. IPD trends during 2000/2001-2019/2020 epidemiological years were analyzed and cases during February-June 2020 linked with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for death. Results: IPD incidence in 2019/2020 (7.6/100 000; n=3964) was 30% (IRR,. 70; 95% CI,. 18-2.67) lower compared with 2018/2019 (10.9/100 000; n=5666), with large reductions observed across all age groups during March-June 2020. There were 160 886 SARS-CoV-2 and 1137 IPD cases during February-June 2020, including 40 IPD/coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) co-infections (.025% [95% CI,. 018-.034] of SARS-CoV-2 infections; 3.5% [2.5-4.8] of IPD cases), 21 with COVID-19 diagnosed 3-27 days after IPD, and 27 who developed COVID-19 ≥28 days after IPD. Case-fatality rates (CFRs) were 62.5 (25/40), 47.6% (10/21), and 33.3% (9/27), respectively (P<.001). In addition to an independent association with increasing age and serotype group, CFR was 7.8-fold (95% CI, 3.8-15.8) higher in those with IPD/COVID-19 coinfection and 3.9-fold (95% CI, 1.4-10.7) higher in patients who developed COVID-19 3-27 days after IPD compared with patients with IPD only. Conclusions: Large declines in IPD were observed following COVID-19 lockdown. IPD/COVID-19 coinfections were rare but associated with high CFR, mainly in older adults. The rarity, age and serotype distribution of IPD/COVID-19 coinfections do not support wider extension of pneumococcal vaccination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E65-E75
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume72
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2021

Keywords

  • bacterial coinfection
  • case fatality
  • nosocomial infection
  • pneumococcal disease
  • risk factor

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Risk of Pneumococcal Coinfection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Prospective National Cohort Study, England'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this