Envelopes of retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), contain host cell proteins that potentially represent novel targets for vaccine development. We show here that sera from rhesus macaques recognized simian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in response to infection with SIV. Antibodies from these animals did not cross-react with human MHC antigens on mitogen-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The development of antibodies to MHC class I α-chain did not correlate with anti-SIV envelope antibody responses, suggesting that these antibodies did not arise through molecular mimicry. In contrast to the species-specific response in infected animals, sera from animals vaccinated with inactivated human cell-grown SIV reacted to both human and rhesus MHC class I and class II molecules.