Interim 2019/20 influenza vaccine effectiveness: Six European studies, September 2019 to January 2020

European IVE group

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B viruses were co-circulating in Europe between September 2019 and January 2020. Aim: To provide interim 2019/20 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates from six European studies, covering 10 countries and both primary care and hospital settings. Methods: All studies used the test-negative design, although there were some differences in other study characteristics, e.g. patient selection, data sources, case definitions and included age groups. Overall and influenza (sub)type-specific VE was estimated for each study using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. Results: There were 31,537 patients recruited across the six studies, of which 5,300 (17%) were cases with 5,310 infections. Most of these (4,466; 84%) were influenza A. The VE point estimates for all ages were 29% to 61% against any influenza in the primary care setting and 35% to 60% in hospitalised older adults (aged 65 years and over). The VE point estimates against A(H1N1)pdm09 (all ages, both settings) was 48% to 75%, and against A(H3N2) ranged from ?58% to 57% (primary care) and ?16% to 60% (hospital). Against influenza B, VE for all ages was 62% to 83% (primary care only). Conclusions: Influenza vaccination is of continued benefit during the ongoing 2019/20 influenza season. Robust end-of-season VE estimates and genetic virus characterisation results may help understand the variability in influenza (sub) type-specific results across studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2000153
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 12 Mar 2020


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