Objectives: To examine invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence, the impact of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7s) programme on the distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes and risk factors for IPD among HIV-positive adults. Methods: We analysed adults (aged 15 years) reported to the HIV and IPD national datasets in England and Wales (2000-2009). Through data-linkage, changes in IPD incidence and serotype distribution were examined. Risk factors for IPD among HIV-positive adults were assessed using a case-control study. Results: Among 63109 HIV-positive adults, 951 were co-infected with IPD. The average annual incidence of IPD was 245 episodes per 100000 HIV-positive adults and 246 of 100000 among those aged 15-44 years. Incidence was higher among those not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (281 of 100000) and those with severe immunosuppression (563 of 100000). Among 9283 adults aged 15-44 at IPD diagnosis, 2.4% were living with undiagnosed HIV. The proportion of IPD episodes in HIV-positive adults with serotypes covered by PCV7 was 23% in 2009, a 54% proportional reduction compared with pre-PCV7 (2000-2006); the reduction in adults of unknown HIV status was 70%. The proportion of IPD episodes among HIV-positive adults caused by serotypes covered by PCV13 was 61%. Significant risk factors for IPD in multivariate analysis included older aged (≤65 years), a lower nadir CD4 cell count and no previous ART. Conclusion: An HIV test should be offered and recommended to adults aged 15-44 years without other obvious IPD risk factors. Our study provides an evidence base to policy makers regarding the use of the new PCV13 in HIV-positive adults.
- 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
- HIV testing
- invasive pneumococcal diseases
- pneumococcal vaccines
- serotype distribution
- undiagnosed HIV infection