Eight cases of Legionnaires' disease were identified among the 215 German passengers after a cruise to the Nordic Sea in August 2003. An unmatched case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors and the source of infection. In total, eight passengers fulfilled the case definition, one of these died. Forty-two passengers served as controls. The attack rate was 4%. The mean age was 60 years for cases and 62 years for controls. Prolonged exposure to the spa pool seemed to be a risk factor of infection (OR 4.85, P=0.09). Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, monoclonal antibody (mAb) subgroup 'Knoxville' was isolated from clinical and environmental samples. DNA sequence-based typing revealed that these isolates were indistinguishable from each other. The investigation showed the importance of an interdisciplinary approach of microbiology and epidemiology as not all sites on the ship that tested positive for L. pneumophila actually posed a relevant risk for the passengers.