Lives saved with vaccination for 10 pathogens across 112 countries in a pre-covid-19 world

Jaspreet Toor, Susy Echeverria-Londono, Xiang Li, Kaja Abbas, Emily D. Carter, Hannah E. Clapham, Andrew Clark, Margaret J. de Villiers, Kirsten Eilertson, Matthew Ferrari, Ivane Gamkrelidze, Timothy B. Hallett, Wes R. Hinsley, Daniel Hogan, John H. Huber, Michael L. Jackson, Kevin Jean, Mark Jit, Andromachi Karachaliou, Petra KlepacAlicia Kraay, Justin Lessler, Xi Li, Benjamin A. Lopman, Tewodaj Mengistu, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Sean M. Moore, Shevanthi Nayagam, Timos Papadopoulos, T. Alex Perkins, Allison Portnoy, Homie Razavi, Devin Razavi-Shearer, Stephen Resch, Colin Sanderson, Steven Sweet, Yvonne Tam, Hira Tanvir, Quan Tran Minh, Caroline L. Trotter, Shaun A. Truelove, Emilia Vynnycky, Neff Walker, Amy Winter, Kim Woodruff, Neil M. Ferguson, Katy A.M. Gaythorpe*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Vaccination is one of the most effective public health interventions. We investigate the impact of vaccination activities for Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, human papillomavirus, Japanese encephalitis, measles, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A, rotavirus, rubella, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and yellow fever over the years 2000–2030 across 112 countries. 

Methods: Twenty-one mathematical models estimated disease burden using standardised demographic and immunisation data. Impact was attributed to the year of vaccination through vaccine-activity-stratified impact ratios. 

Results: We estimate 97 (95%CrI[80, 120]) million deaths would be averted due to vaccination activities over 2000–2030, with 50 (95%CrI[41, 62]) million deaths averted by activities between 2000 and 2019. For children under-5 born between 2000 and 2030, we estimate 52 (95%CrI[41, 69]) million more deaths would occur over their lifetimes without vaccination against these diseases. 

Conclusions: This study represents the largest assessment of vaccine impact before COVID-19-related disruptions and provides motivation for sustaining and improving global vaccination coverage in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number67635
Number of pages63
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: VIMC is jointly funded by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) (BMGF grant number: OPP1157270 / INV-009125). Funding from Gavi is channelled via VIMC to the Consortium’s modelling groups (VIMC-funded institutions represented in this paper: Imperial College London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Public Health England, Johns Hopkins University, The Pennsylvania State University, Center for Disease Analysis Foundation, Kaiser Permanente Washington, University of Cambridge, University of Notre Dame, Harvard University, Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Emory University, National University of Singapore). Funding from BMGF was used for salaries of the Consortium secretariat (authors represented here: TBH, MJ, XL, SE-L, JT, KW, NMF, KAMG); and channelled via VIMC for travel and subsistence costs of all Consortium members (all authors). We also acknowledge funding from the UK Medical Research Council and Department for International Development, which supported aspects of VIMC's work (MRC grant number: MR/R015600/1).

JHH acknowledges funding from National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship; Richard and Peggy Notebaert Premier Fellowship from the University of Notre Dame. BAL acknowledges funding from NIH/NIGMS (grant number R01 GM124280) and NIH/NIAID (grant number R01 AI112970). The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) receives funding support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

This paper was compiled by all coauthors, including two coauthors from Gavi. Other funders had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, or writing of the report. All authors had full access to all the data in the study and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication.

Open Access: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

Publisher Copyright: © Toor et al.

Citation: Toor, Jaspreet, et al. "Lives saved with vaccination for 10 pathogens across 112 countries in a pre-COVID-19 world." Elife 10 (2021): e67635.





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