Globally the most important loss of immunity currently occurs with HIV disease. The effects of HIV on the eye, since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, have been less in countries where such treatment is available but even in such situations ophthalmic zoster can occur at higher CD4 cell counts and can still cause problems. Other opportunistic infections such as CMV retinitis tend to occur at lower CD4 cell counts. However, globally treatment is not universally available in resource poor countries where it is most needed. A major impact of HIV in such situations is on premature mortality affecting the health care and education workforce, which indirectly has an impact on blinding disease. In addition, loss of family income due to illness or death of parents can affect nutritional status of remaining family members especially children as well as the direct effect of opportunistic infections in the eyes of those infected with HIV.
- Binding disease
- Global HIV impact