Human exposures to air pollution control (APC) residues released from 6 landfills were modeled and assessed. Following a qualitative risk characterisation, direct and indirect exposures were quantified. Site-specific air dispersion modeling was conducted for PM10, PCDDs/PCDFs, Pb, Cd, As and CrVI concentrations at the closest residential points of exposure for 4 landfill sites accepting, in total, 75% w/w of the APC residues disposed of in 2000-2001 (UK). Inhalation risks, assessed by reference to air quality standards at residential exposure points, were assessed as insignificant. Preliminary modeling suggested that indirect exposures from PCDDs/PCDFs at the 95th percentile level for the site where APC deposition rates were highest could potentially exceed the tolerable daily soil intake (TDSI) but this warrants further study given the model limitations. These results offer an initial screen of the significance of potential risks from APC disposal, which is of value in addressing concerns about the uncertainty of potential risks to human health from bulk APC disposal at strategic locations.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors are grateful to the Environment Agency for permission to publish. We acknowledge the technical assistance of Terry Coleman (Environment Agency), Grundon Waste Management, AEA Technology (peer review comments on analysis) and Environment Agency operational staff. GD is funded by an Environment Agency postdoctoral fellowship. The opinions and interpretations expressed herein are those of the authors alone; they do not represent the Environment Agency policy.
- Air pollution control residues
- Air quality impact