Mumps is a vaccine-preventable disease; however, outbreaks have been reported in a number of countries with childhood immunization programs, particularly among young adults at the tertiary stage of education. We have retrospectively investigated the epidemiological, virological, and serological factors associated with mumps cases identified in Ireland from 2004 to 2009. Genetic analysis of mumps virus strain variability demonstrated that a single genotype, genotype G, was circulating, and it was also detected in cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from patients with meningitis. We observed that younger individuals were disproportionately affected with neurological sequelae following mumps virus infection, and the average age of patients with mumps virus RNA detected in cerebrospinal fluid was 19.25 years (median, 19 years; range, 14 to 24 years). Our analysis showed a 4-fold rise in mumps cases in 2008-2009 and an increased incidence in infection in those ≥30 years of age. Over a 6-year period (2004 to 2009), a total of 7,805 serum samples were investigated; of this number, 1,813 (23%) were positive for mumps virus-specific IgM. We observed a strong bias for acute mumps virus infection in males compared to females (P < 10-32) that was independent of vaccination status.