Objectives: To determine the presence and genotypic macrolide susceptibility of Mycoplasma amphoriforme, and the presence of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma fermentans among clinical samples from England previously investigated for Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Methods: Quantitative and conventional PCR methods were used to retrospectively screen a collection of 160 clinical samples previously submitted to Public Health England (PHE) for the detection of M. pneumoniae between October 2016 and December 2017. Samples which were positive for M. amphoriforme DNA were further investigated for mutations associated with genotypic macrolide resistance by sequencing domain V of the 23s rRNA. Results: M. amphoriforme was detected in 10/160 samples (6.3%), Ureaplasma parvum was detected in 4/160 samples (2.5%), and M. fermentans was not detected in any samples (0/160). Of the nine individuals (two samples were from the same patient) in which M. amphoriforme was detected, eight were male (age range 10–60 years) and one was female (age range 30–40 years). One individual with cystic fibrosis was positive for both M. amphoriforme and U. parvum. All M. amphoriforme DNA was genotypically susceptible to macrolides. Conclusions: Mycoplasma amphoriforme was found in clinical samples, including lower respiratory tract samples of patients with pneumonia. In the absence of other respiratory pathogens, these data suggest a potential role for this organism in human disease, with no evidence of acquired macrolide resistance. Ureaplasma parvum was detected in cerebrospinal fluid and respiratory tract samples. These data suggest that there is a need to consider these atypical respiratory pathogens in future diagnostic investigations.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors of this manuscript have no conflicts of interest to disclose. This project was funded by the Society for Applied Microbiology's Summer studentship fund.
- Atypical pathogen
- Mycoplasma amphoriforme
- Mycoplasma fermentans
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae
- Respiratory tract infection
- Ureaplasma parvum