The presentation and delivery of antigens are crucial for inducing immunity and, desirably, lifelong protection. Recombinant viral vectors-proven safe and successful in veterinary vaccine applications'are ideal shuttles to deliver foreign proteins to induce an immune response with protective antibody levels by mimicking natural infection. Some examples of viral vectors are adenoviruses, measles virus, or poxviruses. The required attributes to qualify as a vaccine vector are as follows: stable insertion of coding sequences into the genome, induction of a protective immune response, a proven safety record, and the potential for large-scale production. The need to develop new vaccines for infectious diseases, increase vaccine accessibility, reduce health costs, and simplify overloaded immunization schedules has driven the idea to combine antigens from the same or various pathogens. To protect effectively, some vaccines require multiple antigens of one pathogen or different pathogen serotypes/serogroups in combination (multivalent or polyvalent vaccines). Future multivalent vaccine candidates are likely to be required for complex diseases like malaria and HIV. Other novel strategies propose an antigen combination of different pathogens to protect against several diseases at once (multidisease or multipathogen vaccines).
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- Multidisease vaccine
- Multipathogen vaccine
- Multivalent vaccine
- Polyvalent vaccine
- Viral vector vaccine