Outbreaks of infectious disease associated with private drinking water supplies in England and Wales 1970-2000

Bengu Said*, F. Wright, Gordon Nichols, Mark Reacher, M. Rutter

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

86 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In England and Wales over the last 30 years there have been 25 reported outbreaks of infection, associated with private water supplies (PWS). The majority (16 outbreaks) were reported after the introduction of enhanced surveillance. Although PWS only serve 0.5% of the population, 36% of drinking water outbreaks are associated with PWS. The main pathogen, campylobacter, was implicated in 13 (52%) outbreaks. Most reported outbreaks (88%) occurred in commercial or Category Two supplies, which potentially affect larger populations. The main factors implicated in these outbreaks are temporary or transient populations, treatment (lack or failure), the presence of animals and heavy rains. The public health problem associated with PWS could be prevented by the identitication and understanding of risk factors, by the proper protection of water sources and adequate treatment and maintenance. This could be facilitated through the introduction of a risk assessment as part of a scheme for PWS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)469-479
Number of pages11
JournalEpidemiology and Infection
Volume130
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2003

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