Peripheral B Cell Deficiency and Predisposition to Viral Infections: The Paradigm of Immune Deficiencies

Alexandros Grammatikos*, Matthew Donati, Sarah L. Johnston, Mark M. Gompels

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the era of COVID-19, understanding how our immune system responds to viral infections is more pertinent than ever. Immunodeficiencies with very low or absent B cells offer a valuable model to study the role of humoral immunity against these types of infection. This review looks at the available evidence on viral infections in patients with B cell alymphocytosis, in particular those with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), Good’s syndrome, post monoclonal-antibody therapy and certain patients with Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID). Viral infections are not as infrequent as previously thought in these conditions and individuals with very low circulating B cells seem to be predisposed to an adverse outcome. Particularly in the case of SARS-CoV2 infection, mounting evidence suggests that peripheral B cell alymphocytosis is linked to a poor prognosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number731643
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright © 2021 Grammatikos, Donati, Johnston and Gompels.


  • alymphocytosis
  • B cells
  • humoral immunity, immune responses
  • immune deficiency
  • immunodeficiency
  • viral infections


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