Background: Broad-spectrum antimicrobials are commonly used as empirical therapy for infections of presumed bacterial origin. Increasing resistance to these antimicrobial agents has prompted the need for alternative therapies and more effective surveillance. Better surveillance leads to more informed and improved delivery of therapeutic interventions, potentially leading to better treatment outcomes. Methods: We screened 1017 Gram negative bacteria (excluding Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp.) isolated between 2011 and 2013 from positive blood cultures for susceptibility against third generation cephalosporins, ESBL and/or AmpC production, and associated ESBL/AmpC genes, at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City. Results: Phenotypic screening found that 304/1017 (30%) organisms were resistance to third generation cephalosporins; 172/1017 (16.9%) of isolates exhibited ESBL activity, 6.2% (63/1017) had AmpC activity, and 0.5% (5/1017) had both ESBL and AmpC activity. E. coli and Aeromonas spp. were the most common organisms associated with ESBL and AmpC phenotypes, respectively. Nearly half of the AmpC producers harboured an ESBL gene. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of the organisms associated with community and hospital-acquired infections. Conclusion: AmpC and ESBL producing organisms were commonly associated with bloodstream infections in this setting, with antimicrobial resistant organisms being equally distributed between infections originating from the community and healthcare settings. Aeromonas spp., which was associated with bloodstream infections in cirrhotic/hepatitis patients, were the most abundant AmpC producing organism. We conclude that empirical monotherapy with third generation cephalosporins may not be optimum in this setting.
- Antimicrobial resistance