Preventing and managing urinary tract infections: Enhancing the role of community pharmacists—a mixed methods study

Nathan Peiffer-Smadja*, Rosalie Allison, Leah F. Jones, Alison Holmes, Parvesh Patel, Donna Lecky, Raheelah Ahmad, Cliodna McNulty

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Community pharmacists are involved in antimicrobial stewardship through self-care advice and delivering medications for uncomplicated infections. Objectives: This mixed methods study aimed to identify opportunities to enhance the role of community pharmacists in the management of service users with suspected or confirmed urinary tract infection (UTI). Methods: Data collection was through a service user survey (n = 51) and pharmacist surveys and semi-structured interviews before (16 interviews, 22 questionnaires) and after (15 interviews, 16 questionnaires) trialing UTI leaflets designed to be shared with service users. Data were analysed inductively using thematic analysis and descriptive tabulation of quantitative data. Results: Twenty-five percent (n = 13/51) of service users with urinary symptoms sought help from a pharmacist first and 65% (n = 33/51) were comfortable discussing their urinary symptoms with a pharmacist in a private space. Community pharmacists were confident as the first professional contact for service users with uncomplicated UTI (n = 13/16, 81%), but indicated the lack of a specific patient referral pathway (n = 16/16, 100%), the need for additional funding and staff (n = 10/16, 62%), and the importance of developing prescription options for pharmacists (5/16, 31%). All community pharmacists reported playing a daily role in controlling antimicrobial resistance by educating service users about viral and bacterial infections and promoting a healthy lifestyle. Enhancing their role will need greater integrated working with general practices and more prescribers based in community pharmacy. Conclusion: This study suggests that community pharmacists could play a greater role in the management of uncomplicated UTI. The current reconfiguration of primary care in England with primary care networks and integrated care systems could provide a real opportunity for this collaborative working with potential learning for international initiatives.

Original languageEnglish
Article number583
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: The research was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance at Imperial College London in partnership with Public Health England (PHE), in collaboration with Imperial Healthcare Partners, University of Cambridge, and University of Warwick. This report is independent research funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the National Institute for Health Research, the Department of Health and Social Care, or Public Health England.

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: N.P.S. acknowledges the support of the French Association de Chimiothérapie Anti-Infectieuse (ACAI) and the French Society for Infectious Diseases (SPILF). Raheelah Ahmad acknowledges the support of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Fellowship in knowledge mobilisation and the NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance at Imperial College. We thank Claudette Satchell for contribution earlier in the project.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Community
  • General public
  • Leaflet
  • Pharmacist
  • Self-care
  • Urinary tract infections


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