Radiation-induced lens opacities: Epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence, methodological issues, research gaps and strategy

Elizabeth Ainsbury, Claudia Dalke, Nobuyuki Hamada, Mohamed Amine Benadjaoud, Vadim Chumak, Merce Ginjaume, Judith L. Kok, Mariateresa Mancuso, Laure Sabatier, Lara Struelens, Juliette Thariat, Jean René Jourdain*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended reducing the occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year, averaged over five years, with no single year exceeding 50 mSv. With this recommendation, several important assumptions were made, such as lack of dose rate effect, classification of cataracts as a tissue reaction with a dose threshold at 0.5 Gy, and progression of minor opacities into vision-impairing cataracts. However, although new dose thresholds and occupational dose limits have been set for radiation-induced cataract, ICRP clearly states that the recommendations are chiefly based on epidemiological evidence because there are a very small number of studies that provide explicit biological and mechanistic evidence at doses under 2 Gy. Since the release of the 2011 ICRP statement, the Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) supported in April 2019 a scientific workshop that aimed to review epidemiological, clinical and biological evidence for radiation-induced cataracts. The purpose of this article is to present and discuss recent related epidemiological and clinical studies, ophthalmic examination techniques, biological and mechanistic knowledge, and to identify research gaps, towards the implementation of a research strategy for future studies on radiation-induced lens opacities. The authors recommend particularly to study the effect of ionizing radiation on the lens in the context of the wider, systemic effects, including in the retina, brain and other organs, and as such cataract is recommended to be studied as part of larger scale programs focused on multiple radiation health effects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106213
Number of pages14
JournalEnvironment International
Volume146
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The writing of this review was supported by the Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) association which funded the organization of a workshop dedicated to the non-cancer effects of ionizing radiation – the topic of this Special Issue. The conclusions concerning lens opacities are presented in this article. The authors thank the CONCERT European Joint Program [H2020 Euratom grant number 662287] for financial support of the 2019 MELODI workshop. This publication reflects only the authors’ view. Responsibility for the information and views expressed therein lies entirely with the authors. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.

Funding Information:
The writing of this review was supported by the Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) association which funded the organization of a workshop dedicated to the non-cancer effects of ionizing radiation ? the topic of this Special Issue. The conclusions concerning lens opacities are presented in this article. The authors thank the CONCERT European Joint Program [H2020 Euratom grant number 662287] for financial support of the 2019 MELODI workshop. This publication reflects only the authors? view. Responsibility for the information and views expressed therein lies entirely with the authors. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.

Keywords

  • Ionizing radiation
  • Lens of the eye
  • Mechanisms
  • Opacities
  • Radiation protection
  • Threshold
  • RISK-FACTORS
  • ATOMIC-BOMB SURVIVORS
  • DOSE-RESPONSE
  • CELL TRANSPLANTATION
  • CHILDHOOD LEUKEMIA
  • CATARACT-SURGERY
  • CANCER
  • EYE
  • INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGISTS
  • IONIZING-RADIATION

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