Salmonella Paratyphi B; Public Health and Parental Choice: When to Treat Asymptomatic Carriers of Infection?

Katy Fidler*, Julia Dudley, Rachel Cloke, Margot Nicholls, David R. Greig, Timothy J. Dallman, Marie Anne Chattaway, Gauri Godbole

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Salmonella Paratyphi B (Paratyphoid B) is a rare infection and a notifiable disease in England. Disease is typically mild, and chronic carriage in children has been described in endemic countries. Almost all cases in England are imported, with very few cases of community transmission reported. Methods: The aim of this work was to describe an unusual cluster of Paratyphoid B cases transmitted within England, examining clinical, epidemiologic and microbiologic data. Detailed phylogenetic analysis is presented to corroborate public health epidemiologic links between cases. Results: One child had recently returned from an endemic area and had mild gastrointestinal symptoms. One year later, 2 other children with no travel history developed invasive disease requiring hospitalization. Epidemiologic links confirmed person-to-person spread between these three cases. All isolates of S. Paratyphi B (n = 93) received by the Gastrointestinal Bacteria Reference Unit between 2014 and 2019 were typed using whole genome sequencing. Three cases of Paratyphoid B were identified in the same geographical location over a 2-year period. S. Paratyphi B strains isolated from the stool and blood of the three cases were closely linked (0-5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) using whole genome sequencing. Conclusions: This case series highlights the potential public health risks of paratyphoid B and the range of pediatric complications associated with this illness, especially in younger children. Although rare, chronic carriage of Paratyphoid B can lead to transmission in nonendemic areas and should be considered in all children presenting with signs of enteric fever even where there is no history of foreign travel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E374-E378
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was in part funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit in Gastrointestinal Infections at the University of Liverpool (United Kingdom), in partnership with Public Health England (PHE), in collaboration with the University of East Anglia (United Kingdom), the University of Oxford (United Kingdom) and the Quadram Institute (United Kingdom). T.J.D. and D.R.G. are based at PHE. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the National Health Service, the NIHR, the Department of Health or PHE.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.


  • child
  • enteric fever
  • paratyphoid
  • public health
  • Salmonella Paratyphi B


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