Oral-gastric delivery of vaccines is a preferred route of immunization and is particularly relevant to the development of vaccine-vector systems. We have investigated the ability of a replication deficient (E1-deleted) adenovirus construct (RAd68), which efficiently expresses the measles virus nucleocapsid (N) protein under the control of the strong HCMV IE promoter, to elicit antibody and cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses in mice following intragastric administration. Measles virus N protein-specific CTL memory and serum antibody responses were analyzed in a total of 140 mice at time points 2-51 weeks after immunization either with a single dose of 108 pfu RAd68 or with a fivefold higher dose. Of the 20 animals analyzed in the first 4-week period following low-dose immunization, 6 mounted low-level splenic CTL responses while 13 animals had CTL in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Splenic CTL responses were largely undetectable at later times. Only 23% of low-dose-immunized mice made serum antibody responses and these were generally of low magnitude and frequently of short duration. In contrast, the majority of animals immunized orally with 5 × 108 pfu RAd68 mounted splenic CTL responses (70%) and/or antibody responses (89%). Notably, these responses were stronger and of greater duration than those seen following immunization at the lower dose. Gut mucosal immunization with replication deficient adenoviruses is a promising approach, not only for the development of complementary measles vaccine strategies which may be required for measles virus eradication, but also generally for vaccination against other infections.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank M. Dennis, G. Hall, and the staff of the Biological Investigations Group. This work was funded by the Department of Health. The views expressed in the publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Health.
- Oral immunization
- Replication deficient adenovirus