Background: We aimed to estimate socioeconomic disparities in the incidence of hospitalisation for first-ever stroke, quality of care, and post-stroke survival for the adult population of England. Methods: In this cohort study, we obtained data collected by a nationwide register on patients aged 18 years or older hospitalised for first-ever acute ischaemic stroke or primary intracerebral haemorrhage in England from July 1, 2013, to March 31, 2016. We classified socioeconomic status at the level of Lower Super Output Areas using the Index of Multiple Deprivation, a neighbourhood measure of deprivation. Multivariable models were fitted to estimate the incidence of hospitalisation for first stroke (negative binomial), quality of care using 12 quality metrics (multilevel logistic), and all-cause 1 year case fatality (Cox proportional hazards). Findings: Of the 43·8 million adults in England, 145 324 were admitted to hospital with their first-ever stroke: 126 640 (87%) with ischaemic stroke, 17 233 (12%) with intracerebral haemorrhage, and 1451 (1%) with undetermined stroke type. We observed a socioeconomic gradient in the incidence of hospitalisation for ischaemic stroke (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2·0, 95% CI 1·7–2·3 for the most vs least deprived deciles) and intracerebral haemorrhage (1·6, 1·3–1·9). Patients from the lowest socioeconomic groups had first stroke a median of 7 years earlier than those from the highest (p<0·0001), and had a higher prevalence of pre-stroke disability and diabetes. Patients from lower socioeconomic groups were less likely to receive five of 12 care processes but were more likely to receive early supported discharge (adjusted odds ratio 1·14, 95% CI 1·07–1·22). Low socioeconomic status was associated with a 26% higher adjusted risk of 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1·26, 95% CI 1·20–1·33, for highest vs lowest deprivation decile), but this gradient was largely attenuated after adjustment for the presence of pre-stroke diabetes, hypertension, and atrial fibrillation (1·11, 1·05–1·17). Interpretation: Wide socioeconomic disparities exist in the burden of ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage in England, most notably in stroke hospitalisation risk and case fatality and, to a lesser extent, in the quality of health care. Reducing these disparities requires interventions to improve the quality of acute stroke care and address disparities in cardiovascular risk factors present before stroke. Funding: NHS England and the Welsh Government.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
SSNAP is commissioned by the Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership and funded by NHS England and the Welsh Government. This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care. We would like to thank the many hundreds of people and organisations participating in SSNAP, and on their behalf specifically thank the members of the SSNAP Collaboration . CDAW is funded and supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre based at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, and the NIHR Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) South London at King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. MJ is supported by the NIHR CLAHRC for the South West Peninsula. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR, or the Department of Health. BDB (University College London) is the guarantor.
© 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license