The suspected measles case definition captures rubella cases. Therefore, measles surveillance will be improved in the course of the control and eventual elimination of rubella transmission. One aspect of rubella control, virologic surveillance, is reviewed here. A systematic nomenclature for rubella viruses (RVs) based on 13 genotypes has been established and is updated when warranted by increases in information about RVs. From 2005 through 2010, the genotypes of RVs most frequently reported were 1E, 1G, and 2B, and genotypes 1a, 1B, 1C, 1h, 1j, and 2C were less frequently reported. Virologic surveillance can support rubella control and elimination. Synopses of rubella virologic surveillance in various countries, regions, and globally are given, including characterization of viruses from imported cases in a country that has eliminated rubella and studies of endemic viruses circulating in countries without rubella control objectives. Current challenges are discussed.