The use of repeated blood pressure measures for cardiovascular risk prediction: a comparison of statistical models in the ARIC study

Michael J. Sweeting*, Jessica K. Barrett, Simon G. Thompson, Angela M. Wood

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Many prediction models have been developed for the risk assessment and the prevention of cardiovascular disease in primary care. Recent efforts have focused on improving the accuracy of these prediction models by adding novel biomarkers to a common set of baseline risk predictors. Few have considered incorporating repeated measures of the common risk predictors. Through application to the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and simulations, we compare models that use simple summary measures of the repeat information on systolic blood pressure, such as (i) baseline only; (ii) last observation carried forward; and (iii) cumulative mean, against more complex methods that model the repeat information using (iv) ordinary regression calibration; (v) risk-set regression calibration; and (vi) joint longitudinal and survival models. In comparison with the baseline-only model, we observed modest improvements in discrimination and calibration using the cumulative mean of systolic blood pressure, but little further improvement from any of the complex methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4514-4528
Number of pages15
JournalStatistics in Medicine
Issue number28
Publication statusPublished - 10 Dec 2017
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
UK National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, European Research Council (268834) and European Commission Framework Programme 7 (HEALTH-F2-2012-279233). The ARIC study is carried out as a collaborative study supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute contracts (HHSN268201100005C, HHSN268201100006C, HHSN268201100007C, HHSN268201100008C, HHSN268201100009C, HHSN268201100010C, HHSN268201100011C and HHSN268201100012C). The authors thank the staff and participants of the ARIC study for their important contributions.

Funding Information:
J. K. B. was supported by the Medical Research Council grant numbers G0902100 and MR/K014811/1. This work was funded by the UK Medical Research Council (G0800270), British Heart Foundation (SP/09/002),

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • C-index
  • cardiovascular risk prediction
  • joint models
  • regression calibration
  • repeat measures


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